Counting in Malecite-Passamaquoddy
The Malecite-Passamaquoddy language, or Maliseet–Passamaquoddy, is spoken by the Maliseet (Etchemins or Wolastoqiyik) and Passamaquoddy (Peskotomuhkati or Pestomuhkati) peoples along both sides of the border between Maine in the United States and New Brunswick, Canada. Belonging to the Algonquian language family, and more specifically to the Eastern Algonquian languages, it counts about 600 speakers and is considered an endangered language.
Malecite-Passamaquoddy numbers list
- 1 – pesq
- 2 – nis
- 3 – nihi
- 4 – new
- 5 – nan
- 6 – kamahcin
- 7 – oluwikonok
- 8 – oqomolcin
- 9 – esqonatek
- 10 – ’qotinsk
- 11 – ’qotanku
- 12 – nisanku
- 13 – ’sanku
- 14 – newanku
- 15 – nananku
- 16 – kamahcin kehsanku
- 17 – oluwikonok kehsanku
- 18 – oqomolcin kehsanku
- 19 – esqonatek kehsanku
- 20 – nisinsk
- 30 – ’sinsk
- 40 – newinsk
- 50 – naninsk
- 60 – kamahcin kehsinsk
- 70 – oluwikonok kehsinsk
- 80 – oqomolcin kehsinsk
- 90 – esqonatek kehsinsk
- 100 – ’qotatq
- 1,000 – ’qotamqahk
- one million – ’qotalokamqahk
Malecite-Passamaquoddy numbering rules
Now that you’ve had a gist of the most useful numbers, let’s move to the writing rules for the tens, the compound numbers, and why not the hundreds, the thousands and beyond (if possible).
- Digits from one to nine are rendered by specific words, namely pesq or neqt , nis or tapu , nihi or ’sis , new , nan , kamahcin , oluwikonok , oqomolcin , and esqonatek .
- The word for eleven is ’qotanku . From twelve to fifteen, numbers are formed by adding the anku suffix to the unit name: nisanku , ’sanku , newanku , and nananku . From sixteen to nineteen, numbers are formed by setting first the unit name, then the word kehsanku separated with a space: kamahcin kehsanku , oluwikonok kehsanku , oqomolcin kehsanku , and esqonatek kehsanku .
- The word for ten is ’qotinsk . From twenty to fifty, tens are formed by adding the insk suffix to the multiplier unit name: nisinsk , ’sinsk , newinsk , and naninsk . From sixty to ninety, tens are formed by setting first the multiplier unit name, then the word kehsinsk separated with a space: kamahcin kehsinsk , oluwikonok kehsinsk , oqomolcin kehsinsk , and esqonatek kehsinsk .
- Compound numbers are formed by stating the ten, the word cel (and, plus) separated with spaces, then the unit (e.g.: nisinsk cel kamahcin , naninsk cel new ).
- The word for hundred is ’qotatq . From two hundred to five hundred, hundreds are formed by adding the atq suffix to the multiplier unit name: nisatq , ’satq , newatq , and nanatq . From six hundred to nine hundred, hundreds are formed by setting first the multiplier unit name, then the word kehsatq separated with a space: kamahcin kehsatq , oluwikonok kehsatq , oqomolcin kehsatq , and esqonatek kehsatq .
- The word for thousand is ’qotamqahk [1,000]. From two thousand to five thousand, thousands are formed by adding the amqahk suffix to the multiplier unit name: nisamqahk [2,000], ’samqahk [3,000], newamqahk [4,000], and nanamqahk [5,000]. From six thousand to nine thousand, thousands are formed by setting first the multiplier unit name, then the word kehsamqahk separated with a space: kamahcin kehsamqahk [6,000], oluwikonok kehsamqahk [7,000], oqomolcin kehsamqahk [8,000], and esqonatek kehsamqahk [9,000].
- Big compound numbers are formed by adding the word cel separated with spaces between each multiple of ten, i.e. between thousand, hundred, ten or unit (e.g.: kamahcin kehsatq cel nisinsk cel new , ’qotamqahk cel newanku [1,014]).
- The word for million is ’qotalokamqahk [1,000,000]. From two million to five million, millions are formed by adding the alokamqahk suffix to the multiplier unit name: nisalokamqahk [2,000,000], ’salokamqahk [3,000,000], newalokamqahk [4,000,000], and nanalokamqahk [5,000,000]. From six million to nine million, millions are formed by setting first the multiplier unit name, then the word kehsalokamqahk separated with a space: kamahcin kehsalokamqahk [6,000,000], oluwikonok kehsalokamqahk [7,000,000], oqomolcin kehsalokamqahk [8,000,000], and esqonatek kehsalokamqahk [9,000,000].
Write a number in full in Malecite-Passamaquoddy
Let’s move now to the practice of the numbering rules in Malecite-Passamaquoddy. Will you guess how to write a number in full? Enter a number and try to write it down in your head, or maybe on a piece of paper, before displaying the result.
Canoe Indians of Down East Maine
by William A. Haviland, editors The History Press (2012)
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