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Counting in Halkomelem

Language overview

Forty-two in Halkomelem The Halkomelem language is a native american language that belongs to the Salishan languages family. It has three different dialects, namely the Upriver dialect (Halq’eméylem) spoken in the Fraser Valley (southwestern British Columbia, Canada) by the Stó:lō people, the Downriver dialect (Hun’qumi’num’) spoken by the people living downriver from Matsqui, including the Musqueam, Katzie, and Tsawassen, and the Island dialect (Hul’q’umi’num’) spoken by the Nanoose (Snaw-Na-Was), Nanaimo (Snuneymuxw), Chemainus (Stz’uminus), Cowichan (Quw’utsun’), Penelakut, Halalt, and Malahat peoples of Vancouver Island. It counts about 500 speakers. We consider here Hul’q’umi’num’, or the Island dialect of Halkomelem.

Due to lack of data, we can only count accurately up to 9,999 in Halkomelem. Please contact me if you can help me counting up from that limit.

Halkomelem numbers list

  • 1 – nuts’a’
  • 2 – yuse’lu
  • 3 – lhihw
  • 4 – xu’athun
  • 5 – lhq’etsus
  • 6 – t’xum
  • 7 – tth’a’kwus
  • 8 – te’tsus
  • 9 – toohw
  • 10 – ‘apun
  • 11 – ‘apun ‘i’ kw’ nuts’a’
  • 12 – ‘apun ‘i’ kw’ yuse’lu
  • 13 – ‘apun ‘i’ kw’ lhihw
  • 14 – ‘apun ‘i’ kw’ xu’athun
  • 15 – ‘apun ‘i’ kw’ lhq’etsus
  • 16 – ‘apun ‘i’ kw’ t’xum
  • 17 – ‘apun ‘i’ kw’ tth’a’kwus
  • 18 – ‘apun ‘i’ kw’ te’tsus
  • 19 – ‘apun ‘i’ kw’ too:hw
  • 20 – tskw’ush
  • 30 – lhuhwulhshe’
  • 40 – xuthunlhshe’
  • 50 – lhq’utssulhshe’
  • 60 – t’xumulhshe’
  • 70 – tth’ukwsulhshe’
  • 80 – te’tssulhshe’
  • 90 – toohwulhshe’
  • 100 – nets’uwuts
  • 1,000 – ‘apun nets’uwuts

Halkomelem numbering rules

Now that you’ve had a gist of the most useful numbers, let’s move to the writing rules for the tens, the compound numbers, and why not the hundreds, the thousands and beyond (if possible).

  • Digits from one to nine are specific words: nuts’a’ [1], yuse’lu [2], lhihw [3], xu’athun [4], lhq’etsus [5], t’xum [6], tth’a’kwus [7], te’tsus [8], and toohw [9] (or too:hw when ending a compound number).
  • The tens are formed by suffixing the root of the multiplier digit with ulhshe’, except for ten and twenty: ‘apun [10], tskw’ush [20], lhuhwulhshe’ [30], xuthunlhshe’ [40], lhq’utssulhshe’ [50], t’xumulhshe’ [60], tth’ukwsulhshe’ [70], te’tssulhshe’ or tutssulhshe’ [80], and toohwulhshe’ [90].
  • Compound numbers are formed by stating the ten, then the expression ‘i’ kw’ and the unit digit (e.g.: tskw’ush ‘i’ kw’ lhihw [23], hq’utssulhshe’ ‘i’ kw’ xu’athun [54]).
  • Hundreds are formed by stating the multiplier unit before the word for hundred (nets’uwuts), except for one hundred: nets’uwuts [100], yuse’lu nets’uwuts or the’muts [200], lhihw nets’uwuts [300], xu’athun nets’uwuts [400], lhq’etsus nets’uwuts [500], t’xum nets’uwuts [600], tth’a’kwus nets’uwuts [700], te’tsus nets’uwuts [800], and toohw nets’uwuts [900].
  • Compound hundreds are formed by stating the hundred, the ten and the unit, each group linked to the others with the expression ‘i’ kw’ (e.g.: nets’uwuts ‘i’ kw’ te’tsus [108], toohw nets’uwuts ‘i’ kw’ toohwulhshe’ [990]).
  • Thousands are literally multiples of ten of hundreds: ‘apun nets’uwuts [1,000] (10*100), yuse’lu ‘apun nets’uwuts [2,000] (2*10*100), lhihw ‘apun nets’uwuts [3,000] (3*10*100), xu’athun ‘apun nets’uwuts [4,000] (4*10*100)… However, the word tawsun, loanword from the English thousand is also used: tawsun [1,000], yuse’lu tawsun [2,000], lhihw tawsun [3,000], xu’athun tawsun [4,000]…

Write a number in full in Halkomelem

Let’s move now to the practice of the numbering rules in Halkomelem. Will you guess how to write a number in full? Enter a number and try to write it down in your head, or maybe on a piece of paper, before displaying the result.

Books

pí:q’ qas te q’oyíyetsó:llh - Glossary and Teacher’s Guide pí:q’ qas te q’oyíyetsó:llh - Glossary and Teacher’s Guide
by , editors TaleFeather Publishing (2018)
[Amazon.com Amazon.com, Kindle - Amazon.com Kindle - Amazon.com]

Dictionary of Upriver Halkomelem Dictionary of Upriver Halkomelem
by , editors University of California Press (2009)
[Amazon.com Amazon.com]

A Grammar of Upriver Halkomelem A Grammar of Upriver Halkomelem
by , editors University of California Press (1993)
[Amazon.com Amazon.com]

Source

Salishan languages

Comox, Halkomelem, Klallam, Lushootseed, Saanich, Shuswap, and Squamish.

Other supported languages

As the other currently supported languages are too numerous to list extensively here, please select a language from the full list of supported languages.

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