Counting in Klallam
The Klallam language (nəxʷsƛ̕ay̕əmúcən), also known as Clallam, is a native american language that belongs to the Salishan languages family, and more specifically to the Straits branch of the Central Coast Salish languages. Spoken by the Klallam peoples at Becher Bay on the Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada) and across the Strait of Juan de Fuca on the north coast of the Olympic Peninsula (Washington, USA), it is nearly extinct with about 10 speakers, although some revival efforts exist.
Due to lack of data, we can only count accurately up to 1,000 in Klallam. Please contact me if you can help me counting up from that limit.
Klallam numbers list
- 1 – nə́c̕uʔ
- 2 – čə́saʔ
- 3 – ɬíxʷ
- 4 – ŋús
- 5 – ɬq̕áčš
- 6 – t̕x̣ə́ŋ
- 7 – c̕úʔkʷs
- 8 – táʔcs
- 9 – tə́kʷxʷ
- 10 – ʔúpən
- 11 – ʔúpən ʔiʔ nə́c̕uʔ
- 12 – ʔúpən ʔiʔ čə́saʔ
- 13 – ʔúpən ʔiʔ ɬíxʷ
- 14 – ʔúpən ʔiʔ ŋús
- 15 – ʔúpən ʔiʔ ɬq̕áčš
- 16 – ʔúpən ʔiʔ t̕x̣ə́ŋ
- 17 – ʔúpən ʔiʔ c̕úʔkʷs
- 18 – ʔúpən ʔiʔ táʔcs
- 19 – ʔúpən ʔiʔ tə́kʷxʷ
- 20 – nəc̕xʷk̕ʷə́s
- 30 – ɬxʷɬšáʔ
- 40 – ŋəsɬšáʔ
- 50 – ɬq̕čšɬšáʔ
- 60 – t̕x̣əŋɬšáʔ
- 70 – c̕aʔkʷsɬšáʔ
- 80 – taʔcsɬšáʔ
- 90 – təkʷxʷɬšáʔ
- 100 – snáč̕əwəč
- 1,000 – ʔúpən snáč̕əwəč
Klallam numbering rules
Now that you’ve had a gist of the most useful numbers, let’s move to the writing rules for the tens, the compound numbers, and why not the hundreds, the thousands and beyond (if possible).
- Digits from one to nine are specific words: nə́c̕uʔ , čə́saʔ , ɬíxʷ , ŋús , ɬq̕áčš , t̕x̣ə́ŋ , c̕úʔkʷs , táʔcs , and tə́kʷxʷ .
- The tens are formed by suffixing the root of the multiplier digit with ɬšáʔ, except for ten and twenty: ʔúpən , nəc̕xʷk̕ʷə́s , ɬxʷɬšáʔ , ŋəsɬšáʔ , ɬq̕čšɬšáʔ , t̕x̣əŋɬšáʔ , c̕aʔkʷsɬšáʔ , taʔcsɬšáʔ , and təkʷxʷɬšáʔ .
- Compound numbers are formed by stating the ten, then the word ʔiʔ and the unit digit (e.g.: ʔúpən ʔiʔ nə́c̕uʔ , t̕x̣əŋɬšáʔ ʔiʔ táʔcs ).
- The hundreds are formed by stating the multiplier digit before the word for hundred (snáč̕əwəč), except for one hundred itself: snáč̕əwəč , čə́saʔ snáč̕əwəč , ɬíxʷ snáč̕əwəč , ŋús snáč̕əwəč … The compound hundreds are formed by stating the hundred, the ten and the unit, each group linked to the others with the word ʔiʔ (e.g.: snáč̕əwəč ʔiʔ tə́kʷxʷ , čə́saʔ snáč̕əwəč ʔiʔ ɬxʷɬšáʔ ʔiʔ c̕úʔkʷs ).
- One thousand is ʔúpən snáč̕əwəč, or ten times one hundred.
Write a number in full in Klallam
Let’s move now to the practice of the numbering rules in Klallam. Will you guess how to write a number in full? Enter a number and try to write it down in your head, or maybe on a piece of paper, before displaying the result.
Breaking Ground: The Lower Elwha Klallam Tribe and the Unearthing of Tse-Whit-Zen Village
by Lynda V. Mapes, editors University of Washington Press (2009)
Totem Poles of the Jamestown S’Klallam Tribe: The Art of Dale Faulstich
by Joan Worley, editors Jamestown S’Klallam Tribe (2008)
The Jamestown S’Klallam story: Rebuilding a Northwest coast Indian tribe
by Joseph H. Stauss, editors Jamestown S’Klallam Tribe (2002)
Other supported languages
As the other currently supported languages are too numerous to list extensively here, please select a language from the full list of supported languages.