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Counting in Haida

Enter a number and get it written in full in Haida.

Language overview

The Haida language (Hlg̱aagilda X̱aayda Kil in Skidegate dialect, X̱aad Kil in Massett dialect) is the language of the Haida people, spoken in Canada (Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia) and Alaska (Prince of Wales Island) by about 275 people. Endangered language, this is a language isolate within the North American Indian languages families.

Haida numbering rules

  • Numbers from one to nine are specific words, namely sgwáansang [1], sdáng [2], hlgúnahl [3], stánsang [4], tléihl [5], tla’únhl [6], jagwaa [7], sdáansaangaa [8], and tláahlsgwáansangguu [9] (meaning ten minus one).
  • Tens are formed alternately by juxtaposing the word for ten and its multiplier digit, and by multiplying the word for twenty: tláahl [10], lagwa uu sgwáansang [20] (20*1, or tláalaay sdáng, meaning 10 2), tlaalee hlgúnahl [30] (10 3), lagwa uu sdáng [40] (20*2), tlaalee tléihl [50] (10 5), lagwa uu hlgúnahl [60] (20*3), tlaalee jagwaa [70] (10 7), lagwa uu stánsang [80] (20*4), and tlaalee tláahlsgwáansangguu [90] (10 9).
  • In compound numerals, the ten is put first, then the word wáak (meaning plus), then the digit (e.g.: tláahl wáak sgwáansang [11], lagwa uu sgwáansang wáak tléihl [25]).
  • Hundreds are formed by addition and multiplication of the number twenty: lagwa uu tléihl [100] (20*5), lagwa uu tláahl [200] (20*10), lagwa uu tláahl wáak lagwa uu tléihl [300] (20*10 + 20*5), lagwa uu tlaalee sdáng [400] (20*10*2), lagwa uu tlaalee sdáng wáak lagwa uu tléihl [500] (20*10*2 + 20*5), lagwa uu tlaalee hlgúnahl [600], lagwa uu tlaalee wáak lagwa uu tléihl [700], lagwa uu tlaalee sdáansaangaa [800], and lagwa uu tlaalee sdáansaangaa wáak lagwa uu tléihl [900] (800 + 20*5).
  • Thousands are formed by setting the multiplier after the words for one thousand, except for one thousand itself: lagwa uu tlaalee tléihl [1,000] (20*10*5), lagwa uu tlaalee tléihl wáak sdáng [2,000] (20*10*5*2), lagwa uu tlaalee tléihl wáak hlgúnahl [3,000] (20*10*5*3), lagwa uu tlaalee tléihl wáak stánsang [4,000] (20*10*5*4)…
  • One million is built the same way: lagwa uu tlaalee kwan meaning litteraly more that can be counted, and one billion multiplies it by one thousand (lagwa uu tlaalee kwan wáak lagwa uu tlaalee tléihl).

Books

Emerging from out of the Margins: Essays on Haida Language, Culture, and HistoryEmerging from out of the Margins: Essays on Haida Language, Culture, and History
by , editors Peter Lang International Academic Publishers Company (2014)
[Amazon.com Amazon.com]

“And he knew our language”: Missionary Linguistics on the Pacific Northwest Coast“And he knew our language”: Missionary Linguistics on the Pacific Northwest Coast
by , editors John Benjamins Publishing Company (2011)
[Amazon.com Amazon.com]

A Story as Sharp as a Knife: The Classical Haida Mythtellers and Their WorldA Story as Sharp as a Knife: The Classical Haida Mythtellers and Their World
by , editors University of Nebraska Press (2000)
[Amazon.com Amazon.com]

Haida: Their Art and CultureHaida: Their Art and Culture
by , editors Hancock House Pub (1982)
[Amazon.com Amazon.com]

Numbers list

1 – sgwáansang
2 – sdáng
3 – hlgúnahl
4 – stánsang
5 – tléihl
6 – tla’únhl
7 – jagwaa
8 – sdáansaangaa
9 – tláahlsgwáansangguu
10 – tláahl
11 – tláahl wáak sgwáansang
12 – tláahl wáak sdáng
13 – tláahl wáak hlgúnahl
14 – tláahl wáak stánsang
15 – tláahl wáak tléihl
16 – tláahl wáak tla’únhl
17 – tláahl wáak jagwaa
18 – tláahl wáak sdáansaangaa
19 – tláahl wáak tláahlsgwáansangguu
20 – lagwa uu sgwáansang
30 – tlaalee hlgúnahl
40 – lagwa uu sdáng
50 – tlaalee tléihl
60 – lagwa uu hlgúnahl
70 – tlaalee jagwaa
80 – lagwa uu sdáansaangaa
90 – tlaalee tláahlsgwáansangguu
100 – lagwa uu tléihl
1,000 – lagwa uu tlaalee tléihl
one million – lagwa uu tlaalee kwan
one billion – lagwa uu tlaalee kwan wáak lagwa uu tlaalee tléihl

Sources

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